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   2022| January-March  | Volume 21 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 17, 2022

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of inositol on ciprofloxacin-induced depression in rats through upregulation of Keap1-Nrf2 system
Abeer Salama, Mohamed E Elhadidy, Mahitab El-Kassaby, Abdel Razik H Farrag
January-March 2022, 21(1):9-16
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_53_21  
Background Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) are transcription factors that can protect against oxidative stress and inflammation. Its deficiency has a contributory role in depression. Inositol is a nutritional supplement that is linked to various neurotransmitter receptors, such as serotonin. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the influence of inositol on ciprofloxacin (CPX)-induced depression through the upregulation of Keap1/Nrf2 system. Materials and methods Animals were divided into four groups as follows: group I: the normal control group that received saline. Group II (depressed group): rats treated daily with CPX (50 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days. Groups III and IV: rats received daily inositol (0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days concurrently with daily dose of CPX. Forced swimming, oxidative biomarkers such as nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and glutathione-s-transferase, and Keap1-Nrf2 and serotonin brain contents were assessed. Results and conclusion CPX-induced oxidative stress, reduced swimming time, and serotonin (5-HT) brain contents and showed severe neural injury in the form of spongiosis, focal gliosis around the degenerating neurons, and injured neurons revealed differences in sizes, vacuolization, shrinking, apoptosis, and lysis. An elevation of swimming time, brain glutathione-s-transferase, serotonin contents with a decrease of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, and ameliorated histopathological alterations were observed in the inositol-administered group with respect to the CPX group. In conclusion, inositol alleviated neurological toxicity and has antidepressant activity through the downregulation of oxidative stress pathway and upregulation of 5-HT level and Keap1/Nrf2 system.
  513 116 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Therapeutic impact of probiotics in various aspects: a novel prospective strategy
Rehab M Abdel-Megeed
January-March 2022, 21(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_66_21  
Probiotics are viable microorganisms that intentionally provide health benefits when consumed through restoring the gut microflora. Mainly, it is used as a successful approach for the treatment of gastrointestinal upset. Probiotics were initially used as a biotherapeutic regimen around the turn of the century. Probiotics stimulate the immune system that plays an important role in defense response against harmful microflora. Consumption of probiotics improves health against numerous diseases such as colorectal cancer, viral infection, allergies, stress, and different gastrointestinal disorders. This evidence suggests that the functions of commensal bacterial-derived factors are affected by host genetics and the discovery of links between susceptibility gene polymorphisms and protective microbial effects on the host, which might include probiotic-induced host responses. However, while probiotics’ prospective health-boosting effects have been explored in many studies, further study is needed to fully understand the processes and agents that promote their beneficial effects. The current review briefly discusses the beneficial effect of probiotics as a promising biotherapeutic approach focusing on the therapeutic properties of probiotics and its role to enhance the treatment of numerous diseases. Furthermore, the current review discusses the challenges and future insights into the development of genetically engineered probiotics and their application for the treatment of various diseases or as a novel nano-drug delivery system that will be a promising regimen for human health and biotherapy.
  485 110 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Mushrooms as efficient biocontrol agents against the root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita
Gaziea Soliman, Waill Elkhateeb, Ting-Chi Wen, Ghoson Daba
January-March 2022, 21(1):68-74
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_80_21  
Background Root-knot nematodes in general and Meloidogyne incognita, in particular, are pests that cause agricultural losses. Currently, nematode control relies on chemical nematicides, which are hazardous to the environment and human health. The increasing demand for ecofriendly nematicides has prompted researchers to look into biocontrol agents that act as efficient and long-lasting alternatives to the currently used chemicals. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the in-vitro nematicidal activity of eight mushroom (Cordyceps militaris, Metacordyceps neogunnii, Hericium erinaceus, Dictyophora indusiata, Cerioporus squamosus, Tirmania nivea, Tirmania pinoyi, and Agaricus impudicus) extracts against M. incognita juveniles and eggs. Materials and methods Hydromethanolic extracts were prepared from the fruiting bodies of mushrooms under investigation. Then the obtained extracts were evaluated for their in-vitro nematicidal activity against M. incognita juveniles’ second stage after 24, 48, and 72 h of treatment, also against their eggs. Results and conclusion All tested mushroom extracts were capable of inducing mortality in M. incognita second stage juveniles with mortality percentages ranging from 79.3 to 97%. On the other hand, the tested mushroom extracts exhibited some nematostatic and nematicidal activity against M. incognita eggs as compared with the control after 7 days using 80 µl/ml concentration. The tested mushroom extracts caused suppression in M. incognita eggs hatching with inhibition rates that ranged from 59.38 to 81.25%. A. impudicus hydromethanolic extract showed the highest inhibition as compared with the control and other tested mushroom extracts as it caused a relative suppression that reached 81.25% against M. incognita eggs after 7 days of exposure. The same mushroom extract has achieved a juveniles mortality of 97%. A. impudicus extract is nominated as a potential nematicidal agent. Further studies are required to confirm the potency of this extract and analyze its chemical profile.
  432 52 -
Assessment of quality of life and prevalence of readmission in patients with myocardial infarction
Jeny Samuel, Anoora Charles, Christine M George, Elsa Thomas, S. Swathy, Sujith S Kumar, Boby Johns G.
January-March 2022, 21(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_42_21  
Background Cardiovascular diseases have been responsible for one-fifth of all deaths in India over the last decade. The overall purpose of this research was to study patients who have had a myocardial infarction (MI) and their subsequent readmission rate. The study focused on understanding the quality of life of patients with MI, the adverse effects of drugs used in MI, and the compliance of patients with their medication. Patient counselling was given by clinical pharmacists regarding the importance of medication adherence and nonpharmacological therapy such as diet and exercise in the management of MI. The study showed that patient counselling can significantly improve medication adherence and, thereby, quality of life in patients with MI. Objectives To assess the quality of life and prevalence of readmission among patients with MI, to monitor the adverse drug reactions (ADR) and its management, and to study the effect of patient counselling initiated by clinical pharmacists on medication adherence and knowledge of the patients in a tertiary care hospital. Patients and methods A total of 61 patients with MI were subjected to Morisky medication adherence scale 8-item questionnaire to measure medication adherence, modified Hartwig’s Siegel assessment scale to measure the severity of ADR, and the WHO-UPSALA evaluation scale to identify causality. The short form 36 questionnaire was used to assess the quality of life. Results and conclusion According to the study, 14 ADRs were observed. Patients who have experienced chronic MI had a far greater readmission rate. People who experienced a MI had a lower quality of life. The findings in this study revealed that patient counselling was able to enhance patient understanding and medication adherence. This contributes to the development of a positive professional relationship between the pharmacist and the patient. Better understanding of disease and medication can improve health and quality of life of patients.
  385 90 -
Ameliorative effect of costus ethanolic extract against Oxaliplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in adult rats
Abd Elraheem A Elshater, Mahmoud Ashry, Hend Ahmed, Khaled G Abdel-Wahhab, Fatma Adly Morsy, Rana Abd-Elstar
January-March 2022, 21(1):30-39
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_44_21  
Background and objective Cancer is a disease associated with an abnormal proliferation and growth of living cells; treatment with the anticancer therapy, Oxaliplatin (OXP) results in hepatotoxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of costus ethanolic extract (CEE) against OXP-induced hepatotoxicity in a trail to improve its clinical use. Materials and methods Adult male Wistar rats (150–180 g body weight) were randomly divided into four groups (10 rats each): (a) healthy control group, (b) healthy rats treated orally with CEE (50 mg/kg/day), (c) rats injected intraperitoneally with OXP (10 mg/kg once/week), and (d) rats treated with CEE in combination with OXP. Results and conclusion After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed that CEE succeeded to decline OXP-induced hepatotoxicity; this was evidenced by the significant reduction in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferases (ASAT), GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low dense lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin -1 Beta (IL-1β), and alpha-fetoprotein values as well as hepatic malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and DNA fragmentation coupled with a marked rise in serum CD4, albumin and high dense lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, and hepatic glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase values. These effects agonized the structural restoration of the histological picture of liver. It could be concluded that CEE succeeded to a great extent to counteract the oxidative stress of OXP and protect the liver against its toxic effects; CEE may be considered as a promising supplement-candidate for the protection of liver against the side effects of that anticancer drugs.
  382 75 -
Tramadol abuse and addiction: effects on learning, memory, and organ damage
Loveday U Zebedee, Moses W Bariweni, Yibala I Oboma, Ikhide G Ilegbedion
January-March 2022, 21(1):75-83
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_58_21  
Background Addiction to controlled or prescription drugs is an increasing health burden in most countries and Nigeria is not an exception. Tramadol abuse is a menace in Nigeria. There are few reports on the health consequences of tramadol addiction in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Aim The aim of the study was to determine and educate the public on the effects of tramadol addiction on learning, memory, and organ damage. Materials and methods Adult rats were randomly assigned into four groups, n=5. Group 1 received 5 ml/kg of 0.9% normal saline orally, while groups 2, 3, and 4 were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of tramadol daily for 28 days, respectively. Behavioral tests (Y-maze and Morris water maze) were conducted on the first and last weeks of the experiment. On the 29th day, the animals were sacrificed under halothane anesthesia and organs were excised for histological examination. The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (GraphPad Prism 6). Results The behavioral assessments revealed dose-dependent aggression, anxiety, and spasms. Also, a reduction in escape latency in the Morris water maze and increased alternations in the Y-maze occurred to various degrees in the treated groups compared with the control. Different grades of histological abnormalities occurred in the brain, liver, and kidneys of treated rats. Conclusion Tramadol misuse can lead to learning and memory impairment in addition to long-term organ damage involving the brain, liver, and kidneys.
  337 58 -
Stability indicating reverse phase (RP)-high-performance liquid chromatography method development and validation for the simultaneous estimation of olanzapine and samidorphan in bulk and tablets
Hathibelagal Mundarinti Sudheer Kumar, Kothapalli B Chandrasekhar
January-March 2022, 21(1):89-96
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_64_21  
Background Patients with schizophrenia are given a combination tablet combining olanzapine (OLA), an atypical antipsychotic and samidorphan (SAM), an opioid receptor antagonist. Objectives In bulk and tablet dosage forms, a stability-indicating reverse phase (RP)-high-performance liquid chromatography technique for the simultaneous determination of OLA and SAM has been developed and validated. Materials and methods The chromatographic analysis was performed using an isocratic mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water : methanol : acetonitrile (10 : 40 : 50, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min, and the eluents were monitored at an isosbestic point of 285 nm. Results and conclusion The suggested method’s specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, and robustness were all validated according as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method’s stability was validated by forced degradation experiments. Retention times for OLA and SAM were 2.85 and 4.79 min, respectively. The method was found to be precise and accurate. SAM linearity was found to be between 14.0 and 45.0 µg/ml, whereas OLA linearity was found to be between 22.5 and 67.5 µg/ml. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of OLA were 2.65 and 8.85 µg/ml, respectively, whereas the LOD and LOQ of SAM were 8.12 and 27.06 µg/ml, respectively. As a result, the suggested high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of OLA and SAM was reliable, repeatable, accurate, and sensitive.
  322 53 -
Morphomolecular identification, metabolic profile, anticancer, and antioxidant capacities of Penicillium sp. NRC F1 and Penicillium sp. NRC F16 isolated from an Egyptian remote cave
Waill A Elkhateeb, Walaa S.A Mettwally, Shireen A.A Saleh, Walid Fayad, Ibrahim M Nafady, Ghoson M Daba
January-March 2022, 21(1):57-67
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_72_21  
Background There is a pressing need to screen for new sources of potent bioactive compounds to help in treating current widespread diseases. Fungi represent the perfect candidates that can fulfill this need owing to their ability to produce bioactive compounds. Objective To screen for fungi from a novel source, chemically analyze their extracts, and evaluate some of their bioactivities. Materials and methods Soil samples from El Shekh Sayed bat cave in Asyut, Egypt, were targeted as a novel source of fungi. Silylated ethyl acetate extracts were prepared from isolates of interest, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer chemical analyses were performed on these extracts to identify existing metabolites. Moreover, the extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activities against human colon cancer (HCT116) and human breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines. Results and conclusion A total of 31 strains were isolated from the bat cave, and two of them were identified as Penicillium sp. NRC F1 and Penicillium sp. NRC F16. Chemical analyses of their silylated ethyl acetate extracts resulted in the detection of 114 compounds. Penicillium sp. NRC F1 and Penicillium sp. NRC F16 extracts have recorded antioxidant activities of 74.41±0.59 and 65.58±1.55%, respectively. The Penicillium sp. NRC F1 extract has exerted a cytotoxicity of 95.72±1.13 and 97.29±0.61% against HCT116 and MCF7 cell lines, respectively, whereas the Penicillium sp. NRC F16 extract has recorded 95.43±1.4 and 97.08±1.07%, respectively, against the same cell lines. The results propose these strains as bioactive metabolite producers and encourage further in vivo investigations to confirm their potency.
  332 43 -
Red-pigment production by Talaromyces atroroseus TRP–NRC from soybean mill via solid-state fermentation
Mohamed Fadel, Yomna A.M Elkhateeb
January-March 2022, 21(1):17-24
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_63_21  
Background Color of food is important to appear its freshness, safety, good processing esthetic, and nutritional values. In the recent years, production of biopigments from natural sources as an important alternative to harmful synthetic dyes is of worldwide interest. Objective This study focused on the production of red pigment from local isolated fungus Talaromyces atroroseus TRP–NRC by cultivation and optimization of production on soybean mill under solid-state fermentation system. Materials and methods A novel local non-mycotoxin-producing fungus T. atroroseus TRP–NRC, which is isolated from Egyptian compost and deposited in the gene bank under accession number MW282329, was grown on some agricultural wastes producing industrially red pigment under solid-state fermentation system. About 250-ml conical flasks containing 5 g of substrate, moistened with moisten solution to demand level. The flasks were sterilized, inoculated, and incubated under static condition at 30°C. Studies were conducted for optimization pigment-production conditions, Solid: moisture ratio was tested, 2% of the different carbon sources and equivalent level of nitrogen mg/g substrate were examined. Various pH was adjusted. The effect of incubation temperature was carried out over a range from 20 to 35°C, and the effect of incubation period on pigment production was studied over a range of 5–14 days. Red pigment was extracted from fermented soybean mill with 90% ethanol, solvent was removed using a rotary vacuum evaporator. Estimation of the extracted pigments was done by measuring the absorbance by spectrophotometer OD value at 500 nm. Results and conclusions A novel local non-mycotoxin-producing fungus T. atroroseus TRP–NRC was grown on some agricultural wastes for producing red pigment (0.129 g/g soybean original substrate) that were achieved under solid-state fermentation system. The highest production yield of red pigment was reached where the initial pH value was 2.5, temperature 25°C after 7-day incubation when the fungus cultivated in fermentation vessel occupied by 2% w/v soybean mill moistened at solid : liquid ratio 1 : 3. Production of red biopigment shows the advantage of mannitol supplementation as carbon source with soybean for increasing pigment by fold. Pigment production was affected positively by addition of organic nitrogen, especially yeast extract higher than addition of inorganic sources and NH4HSO4 more suitable than the other tested sources after 7 days. High yield of red pigment (mg/g utilizable soybean) makes the production more economical and encourages to be useful in industrial application.
  293 73 -
Anticancer and antibacterial potentials of methanolic extracts of the leaf and stem bark of Afzelia africana
Mathew O Oni, Olorunjuwon O Bello, Rachael A Ademola, Uchechi D Mba, Vincent O Oni
January-March 2022, 21(1):40-45
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_47_21  
Context Afzelia africana is one of the most important woody fodder plants in many parts of Africa. Aims This study evaluated the anticancer and antibacterial potentials of A. africana leaf and stem bark in Nigeria. Patients and methods The methanolic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo according to standard procedures. The extracts were screened for phytochemical properties in accordance with standard methods. The antibacterial potentials of the plant extracts against 10 selected clinical bacterial isolates were evaluated using the agar well diffusion method. Anticancer potential using Human Embryonic Kidney cells and therapeutic index (TI) of the plant extracts were determined by standard procedures. Statistical analysis used The χ2 test was used to determine the correlation between the antibacterial activities exerted by different concentrations of the stem bark and leaf extracts. Results Both plant parts contained alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, and xanthoproteins. The anticancer test with Human Embryonic Kidney cells showed that the leaf and stem bark extracts elicited cytotoxic activity. The leaf extract had TI ranging from 0.23 to 0.97 whereas that of the stem bark ranged from 0.24 to 0.75, against the selected test organisms. There was no significant difference (P=0.077) in the TI between the leaf and the stem bark extracts. There were no significant differences between the antibacterial activities exerted by the leaf and stem bark extracts and within the antibacterial activities exerted by the control antibiotics (P=0.073). Conclusions This study revealed that the stem bark and leaf extracts of A. africana possess anticancer and antibacterial properties.
  300 56 -
Terminalia muelleri extract supplementation alleviates doxorubicin-induced neurotoxicity in rats: involvement of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, apoptosis, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and mammalian target of rapamycin
Samya Mahmoud Ahmed, Marwa A Masoud
January-March 2022, 21(1):46-56
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_56_21  
Background Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used to treat many human cancers, but significant brain damage limits its clinical application. Objectives To investigate the neuroprotective activity of Terminalia muelleri extract (TME) against DOX-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Materials and methods The first group served as a normal control; the second group served as a positive control which was treated with DOX (2.5 mg/kg; dissolved in saline; intraperitoneal three times/week for 2 weeks,); the third group was treated with TME at a dose of 100 mg/kg; the fourth group was pretreated with TME for 2 weeks and then coadministrated with DOX for other 2 weeks; the fifth and sixth groups were treated with DOX for 2 weeks and then posttreated with two doses of TME (100, 200 mg/kg), respectively, for another 2 weeks. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks; brain tissue samples were harvested for the measurement of toxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, neurodegeneration, and histopathological examinations. Results and conclusion DOX-treated animals showed a reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase along with a raise in malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and myeloperoxidase. Also, it caused an increase in caspase-3, indicating an increased propensity for cell death, acetylcholinesterase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin with concomitant decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor. However, administration of TME significantly improved oxidative stress alterations, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and apoptosis. Histological assessments of brain tissues supported the obtained biochemical finding. In conclusion, our findings disclose a potent protective role of TME by activating antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neurogenesis effects, which may contribute to the safe use of DOX in cancer treatment.
  286 34 -
Production and optimization of xylooligosaccharides from beech wood xylan by Bacillus amyloliquifaciens NRRL B-14393 xylanase and its antioxidant potential
Hadeer A Mahmoud, Mona M Rashad, Abeer E Mahmoud, Germine M Hamdy, Shadia A Fathy
January-March 2022, 21(1):97-107
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_7_22  
Background and objective Xylanase is a prominent industrially applicable enzyme. The present study investigated the applicability of crude Bacillus amyloliquifaciens NRRL B-14393 xylanase for production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from beech wood xylan (BWX). Materials and methods Crude xylanase activity was characterized in terms of xylanolytic activities present, pH, and temperature. The effect of incubation time, enzyme dosage, and substrate concentration on XOS production was investigated by response surface methodology based on central composite design. The antioxidant potential of produced XOS was assayed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and H2O2 methods besides their correlated total phenolic content was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Results and conclusion The crude enzyme extract was β-xylosidase free and proved active over a broad pH range. The enzyme was thermostable up to 70°C and maximal enzyme activity was observed at 50°C and pH 8. Functional groups and purity of BWX were identified by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XOS yield was optimized to 16.02 mg XOS/ml xylan (400.45 mg XOS/g xylan) applying 1.70 mg enzyme/g xylan, 4.91 h incubation time and 1.08%, w/v substrate concentration. Xylobiose and xylopentose were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the hydrolysate main end products. Total phenolic content of 115±0.60 mg GAEq/g XOS explicated the high antioxidant capacities exhibited by produced XOS.
  206 43 -
The antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from vagina against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Aleaa A Jameel, Amenah R Abdullah, Sahar I Hussein
January-March 2022, 21(1):84-88
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_85_21  
Background Bacterial infections caused by the genus Staphylococcus represent a grave threat to both humans and animals, and they are a major concern to health authorities. Over the past few decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as the principal nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Objective To investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus against locally isolated MRSA at different concentrations. Materials and methods MRSA isolates were tested against some antibiotics for testing antibiotic sensitivity. The antibacterial activity of L. acidophilus based on the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of L. acidophilus that inhibits the visible growth of MRSA isolates was assessed using the microdilution method. Estimation of MIC of L. acidophilus was done. Biofilm quantification assay was then used for the determination of the antibiofilm activity of L. acidophilus. The MIC concentration was assessed by a microtiter reader. Results and conclusion The antibacterial activity was tested by agar diffusion method and broth microdilution method. The microdilution method was used to determine the MIC of L. acidophilus, whereas the antibiofilm activity was determined by using 96-well polystyrene microtiter plates. The results revealed that L. acidophilus has antibacterial activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The average diameter zone of inhibition observed against MRSA isolates ranged from 11±0.5 to 18±0.5 mm Moreover, at subinhibitory concentration, this extract developed an isolate-specific antibiofilm effect and presented highly significant (P<0.05) variability in biofilm formation before and after addition of L. acidophilus. AA3 and AA12 isolates gave the lowest and highest antibiofilm activity, respectively. In conclusion, the supernatant of L. acidophilus is a promising alternative medication that can be used to treat the infection caused by MRSA.
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RETRACTION
Falcaria vulgaris attenuates morphine toxicity in prefrontal cortex in rats

January-March 2022, 21(1):108-108
DOI:10.4103/1687-4315.345382  
  152 31 -
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