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   2021| October-December  | Volume 20 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 24, 2021

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive tablets of furosemide by design of experiment
Manish K Thimmaraju, Desai Sushma, Beebireddy Vidhya, Aenugu Jyothi, Ganesh K Gudas, Kola Venu
October-December 2021, 20(4):270-280
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_29_21  
Aim and objective The present investigation concerns with the development and evaluation of mucoadhesive tablets of furosemide, which were designed to prolong the gastric residence time after oral administration. Materials and methods Mucoadhesive tablets of furosemide were formulated using different mucoadhesive polymers such as locust bean gum, tamarind gum, and chitosan in various ratios for treatment of hypertension by using design of experiment. Results and discussion The tablets were evaluated for various parameters such as compatibility studies, drug content, weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, swelling studies, in vitro drug-release studies, in vitro mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo residence time test, and release rate kinetics. The in vitro release kinetics studies reveal that all formulations fit well with zero order, followed by Korsmeyer–Peppas, Higuchi, and the mechanism of drug release is erosion. After analysis of different evaluation parameters and drug-release kinetics, formulation code F16 was selected as a promising formulation for delivery of furosemide as a mucoadhesive gastroretentive tablet with best mucoadhesive strength and 98.76% cumulative percentage drug released at the 12th hour. Stability studies of the selected formulation were carried out to determine the effect of formulation additives on the stability of the drug and also to determine the physical stability of the formulation. Conclusion The stability studies were carried out at 40°C/75% RH for 90 days. There was no significant change in the physical property and weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, in vitro drug-release studies, and in vitro mucoadhesion-strength drug content during the study period.
  4,061 207 -
ICP-OES analysis of heavy metal and nutrient elements of yarrow sold in Turkey
Ummusen Gokcena, Yavuz B Koseb, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein, Goksel Arli
October-December 2021, 20(4):364-370
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_16_21  
Aim The present study was to evaluate the local ‘yarrow’ drug − Millefoli herba − samples acquired from aktars, herbalists, and herbal shops. Materials and methods The samples were from Ankara (10 samples), Antalya (14 samples), Eskisehir (11 samples), Istanbul (10 samples), Izmir (10 samples), Mersin (10 samples), and Ordu (seven samples), which are used in the traditional medicine for various purposes. More than 70 samples were evaluated from seven different provinces. Results The taxonomic diagnosis of some of them is sold as Achillea millefolium L.; however, the study results show that the drugs do not belong to this species, and also five different A. L. taxa are sold as A. millefolium L. The selected heavy metals (Fe, Cd, and Co) and plant nutritional elements (Mn, Zn, Na, K, Ca, B, and Mg) were initially determined by quantitative ICP-OES analyses. Among the investigated samples, the lowest and highest results were 0.365–18.86 mg/kg for Fe; 0.007–0.294 mg/kg for Cd; 0.022–0.027 mg/kg for Co; 0.097 mg/kg–2.098 mg/kg for Mn; Zn 0.009–0.624 mg/kg; Na 1.539–15.80 mg/kg; K 39.8–390.3 mg/kg; Ca 31.24–223.1 mg/kg; B 0.046–3.970 mg/kg; Mg 7.058–43.84 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion The results were compared with WHO recommended limits and daily intakes.
  1,060 76 -
Isolation, screening, and molecular identification of new lactic acid bacteria as potential probiotics
Ahmed F El-Sayed, Nivien A Abo-Sereih, Tahany M El-Kawokgy
October-December 2021, 20(4):281-293
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_46_21  
Background and objective Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most useful microorganisms to society, LAB are used in the production of many fermented food products that stimulate digestion and immunity. Therefore, the objective study aimed to isolate, characterize, and identify new LAB members and determining their potential probiotic properties. Materials and methods This study was performed through isolation, selection, and identification of LAB strains morphologically, biochemically, and genetically. Then, to determine their probiotics traits, which include acid resistance, bile-salt tolerance, β-galactosidase activity, heat sensitivity, salinity, cholesterol reduction, and antioxidant activity. Results and discussion Eight LAB isolates were isolated and purified from milk and cheeses, out of eight isolates, K2 showed the highest resistance to acidic pH 2.0, where Log CFU/ml reduced from the initial count 8.79±0.17 at pH 7.0 to 4.57±0.10 at pH 2.0 with 51.99% survival rate. Also, the six bile-tolerant isolates (K1, K2, K3, K4, A11, and A5) were found tolerant to 1% bile-salt concentrations for 3 h with 92.50, 71.10, 64.35, 60.72, 71.11, and 72.21% rate of survival, respectively. Also, antibiotic susceptibility of A11 isolate was the most sensitive, but isolate A2 was the most resistant against antibiotics. Besides, heat sensitivity of selected LAB isolates (K1, K2, A11, and B1) were able to survive at temperatures 15, 37, and 45°C, but isolates (K3, K4, A5, and A2) did not grow at 45°C. Additionally, NaCl tolerance clearly revealed that both isolates (K2 and A11) were able to tolerate a wide range of NaCl (1–8% w/v), then the growth declined with the increase of salt (10%) concentration. The results showed that the cholesterol assimilation was reduced by 32.66 and 30.20% for A11 and K1 isolates, respectively. Also, K2 isolate showed the highest antioxidant activity (86.93%), and the best β-galactosidase producer (24.65 U/ml). Therefore, the 16S-rRNA sequencing was carried out to identify four promising LAB isolates that could be employed as a probiotic strain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates belonged to three genera, including Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Enterococcus. Strains were Lactobacillus casei (A5) KU510332, Enterococcus faecium (A11) KU510333, Lactococcus lactis (K1) KU510334, and E. faecium (K2) KU510335. Conclusion Our results presenting four new isolates as promising potential probiotics for further application in processing probiotic products.
  906 163 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Metabolic disorders associated with coronavirus disease-2019 in conjunction with different chronic diseases and the increased vulnerability to infection
Maha Z Rizk, Hanan F Aly
October-December 2021, 20(4):249-263
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_36_21  
The severe acute respiratory-syndrome coronavirus 2 is a viral pathogen that is responsible for the coronavirus disease-2019. Since first being reported, severe acute respiratory-syndrome coronavirus 2 has infected millions of people and eventually caused millions of deaths worldwide, with these numbers rising daily during successive waves. So far, the risk factors associated with poor clinical outcomes (death or admission to an ICU) have been reported to be old age and several comorbidities associated with compromised immune system to help the patient fight the infection. The most common of these comorbidities are obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, and malignancies. These comorbidities, individually or in combination with age, were reported to be linked with poor prognoses. In the present review, vulnerability of patients with different chronic diseases to infection with coronavirus disease-2019 is discussed with different treatment strategies during coexistence of viral infection with any of these diseases. Also, biochemical markers (e.g., angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, cytokine storm, or inflammatory markers) and the underlying mechanisms associated with viral infection together with the different chronic diseases are described.
  851 188 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Polymer-based encapsulation of peppermint oil (Mentha piperita) nanoemulsion and its effects on life and some physiological activities of honeybees Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
Dalia Abd Allah Youssef, Sawsan M Abdelmegeed
October-December 2021, 20(4):313-322
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_49_21  
Background Nanotechnology is thought to be a promising way to create more reliable and effective products in many fields, that is, biological pest-control methods. Biopesticides based on plant extracts, for example, essential oils, are often a complementary or alternative treatment option. The honeybee Apis mellifera is expected to be exposed for many applied pesticides. In this work, preparation and characterization of peppermint oil nanoformulation was carried out. The effects of prepared formulation were studied on adult workers of honeybee by oral and contact methods, in addition to evaluating some physiological parameters. Objective Honeybees are beneficial and economically important insects and have a major role in crop production because they are considered insect pollinators, representing 80% of insect pollinators, in addition to economic bee products such as honey, pollen, royal jelly, wax, propolis, and venom. Therefore, it is sensitive and is greatly affected by environmental changes, especially the pesticides used on those crops. Recently, nanoproducts appeared in fertilizers and pesticides and used them without knowing their effect on other living organisms in the surrounding environment, the most important of which are beneficial insects such as worker honeybees. The aim of the research was whether nanoparticles had a harmful effect on bees in terms of death rate and enzymatic activity. Materials and methods Four different concentrations of menthol extract and nanomenthol extract (1250, 2500, 3750, and 5000 ppm) were studied on the life of adult workers of honeybee by oral and contact methods (LC50 and LC90). In addition, the effect of these treatments on physiological effects through chemical analysis was done to determine amylase enzyme, protein, and lipid contents. Results and conclusion Encapsulation of peppermint oil nanoemulsion using sodium alginate by cross-linking with calcium chloride was done successfully. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that nanocapsules exhibited a nearly spherical shape. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry indicated no change in oil constituents after the loading process. Encapsulation efficiency and loaded-capacity percentages were evaluated. Mortality percentages for workers treated with peppermint nanoemulsion and crude emulsion were calculated and compared with control. The highest mortality occurred in nanoemulsion than crude oil, and increased at 5000 ppm for both treatments. LC50 value of nanoemulsion in oral treatment was 2629.85 ppm, but in contact treatment was 4246.84 ppm. While LC50 value of crude extract in oral treatment was 5471.13 ppm and in contact treatment was 11 895.65 ppm. Estimated amylase, total protein, and lipid contents in adult honeybees were significantly affected by different treatments. Nanopreparations are more toxic on honeybee workers than their crude materials. Both preparations (nano and bulk materials) have biochemical and physiological effects on honeybee works when exposed to them either by oral or contact treatments.
  876 80 -
Synthesis, characterization, anticancer activity, and molecular docking of novel maleimide–succinimide derivatives
Dakhil Z Mutlaq, Ali A.A Al-Shawi, Rafid H Al-Asadi
October-December 2021, 20(4):303-312
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_26_21  
Background and objective A wide range of maleimide heterobifunctional reagents are used for the preparation of targeted therapeutics. Succinimide derivatives are important compounds found in a variety of natural products that exhibit remarkable biological and pharmaceutical activity. The creation of new maleimide–succinimide derivatives will increase the importance and medicinal applications of these groups. Materials and methods The reaction of bismaleimide (1–2) with phenylhydrazide and 4-methylbenzohydrazide resulted in the formation of N’-[1-(4-[2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl] phenyl)-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-3-yl] benzohydrazide (3), N’-[1-(4-[2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl] phenyl)-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-3-yl]-4-methylbenzohydrazide (4), N’-[1-(4-(2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-3-yl] benzohydrazide (5), and N-[1-(4-(2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-[1,1’- biphenyl]-4-yl)-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-3-yl]-4-methylbenzohydrazide (6). The interaction of potential compounds with AKT1 and CDK2 proteins was performed using molecular docking to target the hydrogen bond and amino acid residues. Results The new compounds were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy,1H-NMR,13C-NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The MTT assay was used to test cell viability against breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The cytotoxicity results revealed that compounds 3 and 5 were more toxic than compounds 4 and 6. Molecular docking of compounds that interacted with AKT1 and CDK2 showed affinity energy of −16.112 and −21.342 kcal/mol for compound 3, while −22.398 and −19.940 kcal/mol for compound 5. The root-mean-square deviation values for CDK2 and AKT1 were 2.27 and 1.61 for compound 3, respectively, and 1.93 and 1.90 for compound 5. Conclusion Toxicity and molecular docking studies revealed that compounds 3 and 5 could be developed as anticancer agents against breast cancer, indicating that further research is warranted.
  844 87 -
Analytical characterization of biomarkers in an optimized novel antidiabetic polyherbal formulation using high-performance thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry
Kummu Jyothsna Jayaraju, Beludari Mohammed Ishaq
October-December 2021, 20(4):329-338
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_35_21  
Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic health issue that requires novel approaches to treatment and a multimodal approach to prevention. In the treatment of diabetes, a polyherbal formulation is the finest alternative medicine. A polyherbal formulation was developed in-house and evaluated for its antidiabetic potential on streptozotocin-induced diabetes rat. The same extract was now characterized analytically utilizing a variety of methods. Objective The goal of this study was to quantify the biomarkers in a novel antidiabetic polyherbal formulation made in-house with Cinnamonum zeylanicium bark, Eugenia jambolana seeds, Vinca rosea whole plant, and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves, using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Materials and methods Cinnamaldehyde (CIN), gallic acid (GLA), vincristine (VC), vinblastine (VB), and gymnemic acid (GYA) were identified as bioactive components of polyherbal formulation hydroalcoholic extract utilizing HPTLC and LC–MS/MS. Acetonitrile, methanol, and 0.1 percent formic acid was used as mobile phase, chromatographic separation was accomplished in 30 min using a gradient system and a SUNFIRE C18, 250×4.6, 5-µm analytical column with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min in LC–MS/MS research. Scanned in a positive mode with a scan speed of 100–2000 AMU/s over a mass range of 20–1974 Da. The electron-spray ionization mode was used, with a source temperature of 150°C and a desolvation temperature of 350°C. The HPTLC separation was performed using ethyl acetate/acetonitrile/water/formic acid/N-dimethyl formamide 5.5 : 2.5 : 0.5 : 1.0 : 0.5 (v/v) as the mobile phase on precoated silica gel 60 GF254 plates. At room temperature, the plates were developed to a distance of 9.0 cm. CIN, GLA, VC, VB, and GYA plates were scanned and measured at wavelengths of maximum absorption of 259, 287, 342, 355, and 387 nm, respectively. Band size, chamber-saturation duration, migration of the solvent front, slit width, and other experimental parameters were carefully examined, and the optimized chromatographic conditions were chosen. Results LC–MS analysis of the hydroalcoholic extract of the polyherbal formulation revealed the presence of all the five bioactive chemical constituents, CIN, GLA, VC, VB, and GYA. Similarly, the drug samples were satisfactorily resolved with Rf 1.81±0.01, 0.05±0.01, 0.02±0.01, 0.09±0.01, and 0.04±0.01 for CIN, GLA, VC, VB, and GYA respectively, using HPTLC. Conclusion The importance of combining Ayurvedic formulations with contemporary high-throughput screening techniques will spark new interest in more powerful biocompatible drug leads. The findings of this study lend scientific credence to the therapeutic applications of the polyherbal formulation.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Insights on the inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 1 as mast-cell stabilizer
Ghada M El-Feki, Mohamed A EL-Desouky, Mohamed A Badway
October-December 2021, 20(4):264-269
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_50_21  
Background Tryptase and chymase are potent proteases secreted by mast cells upon activation. These abundant mast-cell proteases are converted into catalytically active forms by dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1). DPP1 is one of the most important components to initiate chain reaction for triggering the inflammatory response mediating allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. DPP1 can remove the safety catch on various mast-cell proteases, including tryptase and chymase, and plays an essential role in controlling their activity. However, the exact role of DPP1 in mast-cell degranulation is still not fully recognized. DPP1 may help mast cells degranulate via acting inside the cell or after secretion. DPP1 inhibitors are essential for mast-cell stabilization. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of DPP1 in mast-cell degranulation and the role of DPP1 inhibitors in mast-cell stabilization, which may help finding new therapeutic strategies for asthma.
  832 94 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A novel UV-spectrophotometric method as a reliable alternative for the spectrofluorimetric analysis of lucifer yellow: an application to permeability studies on colon adenocarcinoma-2 cell line
Hany H Monir, Ahmed A El-Ashmawy, Aya R Abdou, Walid Fayad, Khaled M Mahmoud, Laila H Emara
October-December 2021, 20(4):323-328
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_52_21  
Background Human colon adenocarcinoma cell-line (Caco-2) monolayer is a well-established ex vivo model used for estimation of drug-apparent permeability through the human intestinal barrier. Lucifer yellow (LY) is a paracellular permeability marker used generally for examining the integrity of Caco-2 monolayer using spectrofluorimetric detection. No other spectroscopic methods were reported for analysis of LY. Objective To introduce a novel validated simple ultraviolet (UV)-spectrophotometric method, for LY determination, as an alternative to the commonly used spectrofluorimetry, as well as to apply the developed UV method to confirm the monolayer integrity of Caco-2 cell line compared with the spectrofluorimetric detection. Materials and methods The measurement was carried out at a wavelength of 277 nm. The linearity range was 1.0–12.5 μg/ml with the regression coefficient (R2)=0.9992. Validation of the method was carried out following the ICH guidelines concerning linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, and stability and statistically compared with the conventional spectrofluorimetric one. Measurement of cultured Caco-2 cell monolayer integrity was carried out using LY employing spectrofluorimetric and UV-spectrophotometric methods. Results and conclusion The calculated t test and F values indicated that no significant difference existed between both methods regarding precision and accuracy. The developed method has been successfully applied for checking the monolayer integrity of Caco-2 cell line. Comparing permeability percentage results of LY, both methods resulted in LY-permissible values of 2.354 and 2.303% using spectrofluorimetric and UV-spectrophotometric methods, respectively, indicating Caco-2 cell-line monolayer integrity.
  842 83 -
A local Bacillus spp.: isolation, genetic improvement, nematode biocontrol, and nitrogen fixation
Shereen A.H Mohamed, Ghada M El-Sayed, Usama S Elkelany, Mahmoud M.A Youssef, Wafaa M.A El-Nagdi, Gaziea M Soliman
October-December 2021, 20(4):352-363
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_30_21  
Background Increasing chemical nematicide and fertilizer application has disturbed the natural balance and increased human health risks, which in turn compelled and increased the urgency to discover novel and more safe and effective biological tools to control root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) distributed throughout Egypt. Objective Isolation and screening of rhizobacteria from soil samples was the first step. The second step was the evaluation of the isolated rhizobacteria capability as nematicides under laboratory and screenhouse conditions. The third was to employ protoplast fusion as genetic technique to improve the nematicidal effect of rhizobacterial bacteria strains and comparison between parent and fusant protein profiles to analyze the genetic recombination among them. Materials and methods Serial dilution method was used to isolate rhizobacteria on Tryptic Soy Agar plates. The evaluation test against M. incognita J2 of bacterial isolates was achieved under laboratory conditions and nematode parameters under screenhouse. The most potent rhizobacteria were exposed to molecular identification using 16s rDNA sequencing. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp tenebrionis (Bt) was evaluated for the first time as a bioagent that acted as a nematicide. Protoplast fusion was employed between the most potent bacterial strain, Bacillus cereus (Bc) and B. thuringiensis subsp tenebrionis (Bt). Selection of bacterial fusants was achieved on complete media containing selectable antibiotics marker. Parental and fusant strains were evaluated against J2 under laboratory and screenhouse conditions and their ability in plant-growth promotion by assessment of plant parameters. SDS-PAGE analysis was used to analyze protein profiles. Results and conclusion Out of 15 bacterial isolates, NRC12 recorded the highest percentage mortality 88.3% after 24 h compared with control. NRC12 was identified as B. cereus NRC12 (Bc) and deposited in Genbank under accession number MW548408. Protoplast fusion between B. cereus (Bc) and B. thuringiensis (Bt) resulted in formation of 10 stable bacterial fusants that gave higher nematicidal effect compared with parental strains. Bacterial fusant, F7, achieved the highest mortality and reduction in J2 in soil by 98.3 and 87.19% under laboratory and screenhouse conditions, respectively. The highest reduction in the number of galls and egg masses on root system was also recorded by F7 with 77.18 and 72.35%, respectively, compared with its parents. Also, F7 registered the highest significant (P≤0.05) increment in length, fresh weight, and dry weights in the shoot system of eggplant in pot experiments. The bacterial fusant, F7, exhibited more ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen compared with bacterial parents. Protein profile of F7 proved that this fusant was the only one that acquired equal protein bands from each parent. The highest frequency of genetic recombination might occur in F7 and subsequently, induced effective nematicidal effect more than its parents.
  810 85 -
Effect of light and methyl jasmonate on the accumulation of anticancer compounds in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus
Mona M Ibrahim, Nancy Danial, Mohamed A Matter, Mohamed R Rady
October-December 2021, 20(4):294-302
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_48_21  
Background and objectives Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that contains unique compounds used in cancer treatment. This investigation deals with enhancing the production of anticancer compounds (ajmalicine, vinblastine, and vincristine) in cell suspension cultures through elicitation by methyl jasmonate and light and dark treatments. Materials and methods For callus induction, leaf segments were cultured on solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different 2,4-D and kin supplementations. Actively growing leaf was used for initiation of cell suspension culture by transferring 1 g of tissues in 100 ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 20 ml liquid MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2.4-D+1.0 mg/l kin. Different concentrations of MeJA (100, 200 and 300 μM) were added to cell suspension culture. Cell tissues were harvested at 2 and 4 days after elicitation. For light and dark elicitation, cell suspension culture was performed in 250 ml conical flasks containing 50 ml of liquid medium and inoculated with 1 g fresh calli, subjected to 16 h photoperiod and complete darkness; then callus tissues were collected at 2 and 4 days after elicitation. Estimation of ajmalicine, vinblastine, and vincristine was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography in the elicited cultures compared with untreated calli. Results and conclusion Callus of C. roseus was produced from young leaves on MS medium with 1.0 mg/l of each 2,4-D and kin that recorded high callus initiation frequency (%). In cell suspension culture, viability of cells increased gradually with time until it reached their maximum at day 20 of culture, then declined until 30 day of culture. Adding methyl jasmonate (100 µM) showed higher level of ajmalicine after 2 days of culture and increased 19-fold than the control. The vinblastine content was decreased at 200 µM methyl jasmonate when cultures were treated for 2 days. With regard to vincristine accumulation in cell suspension, it was observed that there was no difference in the accumulation of vincristine. For light and dark exposure, it could be observed that cultures exposed to light condition gave the best results of ajmalicine and vincristine than cultures exposed to dark conditions, while the vinblastine content was better under dark at 2 or 4 days. In conclusion, the results suggest that methyl jasmonate efficiently enhances both of ajmalicine and vinblastine especially after 2 days, while for vincristine, there was no improvement. Regarding dark and light conditions, the yield of ajmalicine and vincristine was higher in light conditions, in contrast to vinblastine which is higher in dark than in light conditions in C. roseus suspension cultures. The results could be very effective for large-scale production for pharmaceutical industry.
  782 110 -
Repurposing of available antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 by targeting crucial replication machinery proteins: a molecular docking study
Ahmed F El-Sayed, Amira T Mohammed, Wafy Hamed, Shaymaa Abdelmalek
October-December 2021, 20(4):371-392
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_70_21  
Background and objectives The newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus is spreading worldwide rapidly with increasing incidence rates. Due to lack of effective treatments and vaccines, various drug repurposing studies are being developed. Searching for available antiviral drug libraries is the best and fast option to advance to clinical trials and spread their application among infected patients. Materials and methods Molecular docking study was performed utilizing AutoDock 4.2 system and Discovery Studio 4.5, which were utilized to predict the activity pocket of the target proteins. Results and conclusion The results found that the interacting affinities resulted from the molecular simulation of 3CL protease with ligands Ledipasvir, Sofosbuvir, Ribavirin, Galidesivir, Tenofovir, and Remdesivir were −7.2, −7.4, −7.2, −6.3, −6.1 and −6.6 kcal/mol, respectively. Similarly, the interacting energies obtained from the docking of RNA helicase with ligands were −7.9, −7.4, −6.4, −7.9, −6.2, and −6.9 kcal/mol. Also, the binding energies obtained from the docking of 3′-5′ exoribonuclease with ligands were −10.6, −10.1, −6.5, −7.1, −6.1, and −9.3 kcal/mol. Finally, the binding energies score from the docking of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with ligands was −9.6, −6.9, −6.2, −6.6, −6.7, and −6.4 kcal/mol. Based on the binding energy score and docking result, Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir have a higher affinity of the drug molecule such as against RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, exonuclease, and 3CL protease. Besides, Ledipasvir and Galidesivir show prominent binding interaction with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus RNA helicase. The results are promising for evaluated drugs especially Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir and could be useful in emergency treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 patients.
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Protective efficiency of Eclipta prostrata on diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats using the urinary lipidomics approach
Noha S Hussein, Azza S Helmy, Naglaa M Sherif, Hassan Z Ghanem, Abdel N El Gendy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
October-December 2021, 20(4):339-351
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_40_21  
Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease in western countries and is characterized by excessive fat deposition in the liver. It affects 15–30% of the general population worldwide. Objectives This study aims to detect and evaluate a reproducible signature of lipid metabolome for early detection of NAFLD as well as protective efficiency of Eclipta prostrata based on targeted metabolomics analysis of urine. Results and conclusion A discrete divergence in levels of glycerol, myristic acid, cholesterol, 1,3-dipalmitin, and oleic acid was recorded in urine of rats bearing NAFLD in contrast to healthy ones. These metabolites were considered as diagnostic metabolic biomarkers for NAFLD. This study showed that these metabolites were less affected in rats given E. prostrata as a protective agent. It is concluded from this research that the lipidomic approach could be used for early diagnosis of NAFLD in urine as well as assessment of the stratification of protection by herbal medication.
  660 59 -
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