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   2016| May-August  | Volume 15 | Issue 2  
    Online since September 14, 2016

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Effects of Roselle calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)-supplemented diets on growth and disease (Aeromonas hydrophila) resistance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
Amani M. D. El Mesallamy, Mohammad H Ahmad, Ahmad M. A. Souleman, Ahmed T El Morsy, Asmaa S Abd El-Naby
May-August 2016, 15(2):78-87
Aims The aim of this study was to determine the effect of phenolic compounds of Roselle calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) on growth performance, feed utilization, whole-body composition, blood profile, and immunity against Aeromonas hydrophila in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Background H. sabdariffa extracts have demonstrated to have a broad range of therapeutic effects such as antioxidant, antiobesity, anticancer, inhibition of the contractility of rat bladder and uterus, antibacterial, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial activities due to the presence of phenolic compounds. Materials and methods Fifteen fish with the same initial weight (5.45 ± 0.01 g/fish) were selected and randomly distributed into four experimental treatments in triplicates. The chemical profiles of phenolic constituents were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the major phenolic compounds. Results and discussion The diet containing 1% Roselle calyx showed the highest growth performance and feed utilization in comparison with other dietary treatments. The main phenolic compounds were ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, carnosic acid, cinnamic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-Coumaric acid, and quercetin-7-O-glucoside, in addition to anthocyanins such as delphinidin-3-glucoside, sambubioside, cyanidin-3-monoglucoside, and cyanidin-3-sambubioside. Conclusion Roselle calyx was found to have an antibacterial activity antagonistic to pathogenic A. hydrophila infection in fish. Lysozyme and bactericidal activities of fish increased significantly in fish fed on Roselle calyx-enriched diets.
  4,911 418 6
Screening for antioxidant, antifungal, and antitumor activities of aqueous extracts of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla)
Mona Y Osman, Hanan A.A. Taie, Wafaa A Helmy, Hassan Amer
May-August 2016, 15(2):55-61
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum conditions to isolate aqueous extracts of chamomile seeds at different pHs and modify chemically by means of sulfation. In this work, the extracts of chamomile seeds were obtained by means of water extraction (80°C) at three different concentrations (acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions), followed by sulfation with chlorosulfonic acid. Materials and methods In all obtained extracts and sulfated derivatives, the content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were measured using the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity method and displayed, in general, the moderate activity for all studied extracts. The agar diffusion method was utilized to screen the antifungal effects of both extracts and their sulfated derivatives. The antitumor effect of extracts at different concentrations (300, 600, and 900 μg/ml) was measured microscopically using the cell cancer viability test. Results The aqueous extracts and their corresponding sulfates produced the same activity against two strains of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum at the concentration of 40 μg/disc as compared with the reference commercial fungicidal griseofulvin. The activity of all extracts revealed slight inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line growth. Conclusion Water extracts of chamomile plant seeds obtained at different pH conditions demonstrated moderate antioxidant, antifungal, and antitumor activities. Further studies are needed to increase the efficiency of extraction methods to increase phenolic and flavonoid proportions in extracts.
  3,682 429 2
Chiral separation and determination of enantiomeric purity of the pharmaceutical formulation of cefadroxil using coated and immobilized amylose-derived and cellulose-derived chiral stationary phases
Mohammed Nadjib Rebizi, Khaled Sekkoum, Nasser Belboukhari, Abdelkrim Cheriti, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
May-August 2016, 15(2):88-97
Background and objectives In the present article, we describe the development of a simple, direct, and isocratic high-performance liquid-chromatographic method for chiral separation and the determination of the enantiomeric purity of cefadroxil. Cefadroxil has three chiral centers; the existence of eight different stereoisomers is possible. Only one of these isomers is currently under development as an antibiotic agent and, consequently, the other seven isomers are considered as unwanted chiral impurities. Materials and methods An analytical chiral separation was carried out to check its enantiomeric purity. The separation was carried out by exploiting the high efficiency of several coated/immobilized cellulose and amylose chiral stationary phases under normal-phase and polar-organic modes. The effects of type and concentration of the alcoholic modifiers, 2-propanol and ethanol, on the separation of stereoisomers were studied for optimum resolution. Results and conclusion Complete baseline separation of stereoisomers with good resolution was achieved within 40 min under normal-phase mode on Chiralpak IB column using hexane–2-propanol (60 : 40 v/v) as the mobile phase, without any organic additives, at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min at 25°C and with the ultraviolet detection set at 268 nm. This process was found to be suitable for rapid enantiomeric purity analysis and a quality control of cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations without interference of the excipients. The chiral recognition mechanisms of separation were also discussed.
  3,733 283 6
Establishment of primmorphs from three Red Sea sponge species
Hanaa M Rady, Fayez A Shoukr, Mohamed M El Komi, Ahmed M El Bossery, Mohamed A Ezz El-Arab
May-August 2016, 15(2):48-54
Background Primmorphs are a special form of 3D-cell aggregates obtained from sponge cells. They can be used as biofermenters for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. In the commercial development of sponge-derived drug leads, the production of primmorphs is one of the methods proposed to solve the supply problem. In addition, using primmorphs for the production of drugs can preserve the sponge population from extinction by producing enough quantities of the extracts and compounds that present in wild sponges. Objectives The presented work aimed to produce primmorphs of Red Sea sponges Hemimycale aff arabica, Stylissa carteri, and Crella (Yvesia) spinulata as long-term cultivation in vitro and identify the impact of different cell densities on their formation and growth. Results Microscopic studies suggested that primmorphs are formed through four stages: amorphous large cell floc within 1–3 h; small irregular cell aggregations in 1 day; large primary cell aggregations and round-shaped primmorphs after 3 days. Primmorphs of C. spinulata and S. carteri remained alive for 3–6 months. The primmorphs of H. arabica remained alive for 1 month. Long-term primmorph cultivation in vitro allows the creation of a controlled live model under experimental conditions. Conclusion This work may provide a solution to the ‘supply problem’ in the commercial development of sponge-derived drugs, as primmorphs can be used as biofermenters for bioactive secondary metabolite production. In addition, primmorphs can be used to study the morphogenesis of their sponges at different stages and transdifferentiation as well as the processes of spiculogenesis.
  3,170 321 -
Anticonvulsant potential of certain N-(6-substituted benzo[d] thiazol-2-yl)-2-(4-substituted piperazin-1-yl)acetamides
Ola Ahmed Saleh, Mohamed Farrag El-Behery, Mohamed Nabil Aboul-Enein, Aida Abd El-Sattar El-Azzouny, Yousreya Aly Maklad
May-August 2016, 15(2):62-69
Background and objectives Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder. It is characterized by recurrent unprovoked occurrence of seizures that affect people of all ages. Thus, in the current work we undertook the synthesis of the joined structures of both 1, 3-benzothiazole and piperazine through amidic linkage, which will greatly foster the anticonvulsant profile of the new candidates. Experimental Synthesis of the target compounds N-(6-substituted benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-(4-substitued piperazinyl)acetamide derivatives (4a–f) was achieved. The anticonvulsant profile of these compounds at the selected dose of 100 mg/kg was investigated using maximal electroshock seizure and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole screens as well as neurotoxicity test. Results and discussion Most of the synthesized compounds, 4a–f, displayed 16.67–100% anticonvulsant activity in maximal electroshock seizure screening at a dose range of 0.22–0.31 mmol/kg. The most potent compounds were 4a (ED50 = 58 mg/kg≡0.15 mmol/kg), 4b (ED50 = 64 mg/kg≡0.19 mmol/kg), and 4c (ED50 = 60 mg/kg≡0.19 mmol/kg). Compound 4a was the only one that exhibited 100% protection in the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole screen with ED50 = 56 mg/kg≡0.15 mmol/kg. It possessed potent activity that was about six-fold more than that of ethosuximide (ED50 = 130 mg/kg≡0.92 mmol/kg), which was used as a reference drug, and lower than that of phenobarbital (ED50 = 13.20 mg/kg≡0.06 mmol/kg).
  2,671 254 2
Off-label drug use in pediatric wards: a prospective study in a tertiary care hospital in Pune
Faizal Vohra, Sunita Pawar
May-August 2016, 15(2):70-73
Aim and objectives The aim of this study was to identify the most common off-label drug used in pediatric wards and to classify the age group in which off-label medications were prescribed. Materials and methods A 2-month prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Pune. Seventy patient medication charts were reviewed. Two drug databases, the Micromedex drug database and Medscape drug reference, were the secondary sources of reference used and the National Formulary of India (NFI) was also used as the tertiary source of reference to assess and identify off-label drug use. Results Out of 70 patients enrolled in the study, 57 (81%) patients were prescribed off-label medications. The most common off-label prescription were for ipratropium bromide (12%), pantoprazole (12%), salbutamol (11%), and fosphenytoin (10%); it was found that safety and efficacy in the pediatric population were not established on most of the drugs that were prescribed off label, whereas some drugs were prescribed in an indication for which the drug was not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The highest proportion of off-label drugs was prescribed in infants. Conclusion Off-label prescribing in the pediatric population was very high; the highest proportion of off-label drugs was prescribed in infants. Use of a drug database and the NFI can be useful in identifying off-label prescribing in pediatrics.
  2,570 284 1
Prospective observational case series of povidone iodine-induced contact dermatitis
Priyank Shah, Radha Yegnanarayan
May-August 2016, 15(2):74-77
Background Povidone iodine (PVI) is a broad-spectrum bactericidal agent and is also effective against viruses, protozoans, and fungi. With this advantage comes the disadvantage of irritation at the site of application. The sensitization rate of PVI was found to be 0.7%. Aim The aim of this study was to identify the cases of contact dermatitis (CD) due to PVI and to study the various clinical patterns, severities, and causalities of the cases. Settings and design This study is a prospective observational case series report. Method Thirty patients diagnosed with CD due to PVI were included in the study and evaluated on the basis of causality, severity, and preventability with standardized questionnaires like Naranjo’s algorithm and WHO causality scale, Hartwig–Shigel severity scale, and modified Schumock and Thorton scale for preventability, and they were followed up at days 5 and 10. Results and conclusion Male patients dominated the study population (M : F, 3 : 2), and the most frequently encountered age group was 20–50 years. The most common locations of CD were the lower limb (50%), trunk (31.81%), and upper limb (18.19%). The concentration of PVI used for all of the cases was 10%, and similar brands of PVI were used on all patients. Eighteen cases were mild and 12 were moderately severe on the Hartwig scale. Causality assessment was performed using Naranjo’s algorithm and the WHO causality scales. It was found that all cases were probable on Naranjo’s algorithm and possible on the WHO causality scale. The cases were found to be preventable on the modified Schumock and Thornton scale. All cases were avoidable according to the P-method. PVI is the most common antiseptic used in the surgical field, and sensitization to PVI is not uncommon, as mentioned in the literature. A PVI concentration of 10% has a higher propensity for causing side effects, but it also has a higher efficacy in reducing the bacterial load.
  1,940 159 1