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   2016| January-April  | Volume 15 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 14, 2016

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Determination of the antibacterial effect of some natural products against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
Amal Sabry Othman
January-April 2016, 15(1):10-16
Objective This study evaluates the antibacterial activity of five natural substances (hot water extract of cinnamon sticks, peppermint, and lemon leaves, Egyptian local packed honey, and Yemeni Sidr honey) against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods The well diffusion method was first used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of each of these tested natural products on the tested organisms. The minimal inhibitory concentration and the minimal bactericidal concentration were detected for the effective substances. The highly effective antimicrobial ones were chosen to investigate their effect on the tested organisms by graphing the bacterial growth curve of each bacterium before and after treatment. Results and conclusion The findings indicated lower antibacterial effect of the three plant extracts compared with both bee honey samples. Yemeni Sidr honey, local honey, and cinnamon extract were the more potent antibacterial agents, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of these three natural substances ranged between 10 and 80% for the tested organisms. Bacterial growth curve indicated that honey had powerful antimicrobial activity that did not allow bacteria to grow, especially after treatment with Yemeni Sidr honey. The study recommends that herbal extracts and honeys could potentially be used as therapeutic agents against bacterial infection particularly on the tested microorganisms.
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Inhibition of human pathogenic bacteria by Moringa oleifera cultivated in Jazan (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) and study of synergy to amoxicillin
Mona Kilany
January-April 2016, 15(1):38-42
Background The spread of multidrug-resistant strains of bacteria to most antibiotics has led to intensive searches for effective strategies to overcome bacterial infections. Aim Moringa oleifera could be a potentially useful agent for many therapeutic applications, especially antimicrobial. Settings and design The leaves of M. oleifera were collected in October 2014 from Jazan, located in the southern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods Different organic solvents were used to extract antimicrobial substances in the plant leaves. The antibacterial activity of each leaf extract was determined in vitro and compared with some antibiotics. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of both plant extracts and amoxicillin were investigated against Bacillus spp. An evaluation of the synergistic effects of amoxicillin and plant extract was carried out. Results The results showed that an ethanol extract is the best organic solvent for extracting the antimicrobial substance from M. oleifera. In addition, the antibacterial potential of an ethanol extract is comparable to that of some commercial antibiotics. MIC and MBC of the plant extract were 320 and 620 μg/ml, respectively, whereas MIC and MBC of amoxicillin were 25 and 50 μg/ml, respectively. The fractional inhibitory concentration of the plant extract and amoxicillin was determined to be 0.125 and 0.25, respectively. Therefore, ethanolic plant extract can be considered a good synergistic factor to amoxicillin, yielding a fractional inhibitory concentration index 0.375 ≤ 0.5 of the combination. Conclusion M. oleifera leaves may serve as a natural alternative to antibiotics. Moreover, M. oleifera can boost the inhibitory effect of amoxicillin, leading to a reduction of administration dose as well as minimizing the side effects of antibiotics.
  3,194 278 1
Detection of bactericidal activity of camel's milk compared with raw and processed cow's milk against pathogenic bacteria
Amal S Othman
January-April 2016, 15(1):31-37
Objective The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of camel's milk compared with three types of raw and processed cow's milk as a natural safe way to overcome pathogenic bacteria instead of using chemotherapy, which leads to the phenomenon of microbial resistance. Materials and methods A total of 16 milk samples were collected; four samples from four healthy camels (4 years old), four fresh cow milk samples, four pasteurized milk samples, and four packed buttermilk samples. The camel's and cow's milk were boiled before the investigation. Bacterial isolation from these samples was carried out on specific media. The antibacterial activity for each milk type was assessed against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains previously examined for its multidrug resistance activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of each milk type was also determined. Transmission electron microscope was used for the highly affected bacterial strain for each of the milk types. Results and conclusion The four milk sample types were free from bacterial contamination. They all possessed antimicrobial activity but not for all seven examined bacterial strains. The strains affected were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by camel's milk and E. coli and Streptococcus faecalis by the other three cow's milk types. Pasteurized milk and buttermilk showed the higher effects. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration for the milk types ranged between 10 and 80%. Transmission electron microscope studies on the bacteria affected revealed damage in bacterial cell wall and disturbance in cell protein content. It can be concluded that milk can be used in vitro as a natural safe way to overcome some pathogenic bacteria instead of using antibiotics.
  3,031 374 -
Pharmacological evaluation of Musa paradisiaca (Linn.) on bronchial asthma
Ganesh Patro, Madhulata Panda, Prativa Das, Amrita Bhaiji, Avinash Panda, Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo
January-April 2016, 15(1):25-30
Objective The present study was conducted to investigate the antiasthmatic potential from the flowers of Musa paradisiaca Linn. to validate its traditional claims. Materials and methods The antiasthmatic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of M. paradisiaca flower (HMPF) was evaluated by studying histamine or acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs, compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation in albino rats, and histamine-induced constriction in isolated guinea pig trachea. The preconvulsion dyspnea time at the 0th and seventh day at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg in guinea pigs, the percentage of granulated and degranulated mast cells at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 μg/ml in rats, and muscular contraction at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 μg/ml in isolated guinea pig trachea were evaluated and compared with their respective control groups. Results Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, saponin, terpenoids, lignins, and phenolic compounds in the extract. In addition, treatment with HMPF significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the bronchospasm induced by histamine or acetylcholine in guinea pigs, the degranulation of mast cell in rats, and histamine-induced constriction in isolated guinea pig trachea, when compared with the inducer group. In addition, HMPF showed a dose-dependent antiasthmatic effect in the animals. Conclusion The present study concluded that the antiasthmatic activity of the HMPF may be due to the presence of the above-mentioned phytoconstituents causing membrane stabilization, suppression of antibody production, and inhibition of antigen-induced histamine and acetylcholine.
  2,694 238 -
Antioxidant and antiviral activities of the aqueous alcoholic leaf extract of Boscia angustifolia A. Rich. (Capparaceae) and its major component 'ombuin'
Maha M Salem, Sameh R Hussein, Reham El-Sharawy, Ahmed El-Khateeb, Eman A Ragab, Kamal M Dawood, Sabry I.M. El Negoumy
January-April 2016, 15(1):1-5
Background and objectives Boscia angustifolia A. Rich. is an endemic African species and has various folk medicinal uses. The present study aimed to investigate the polar compounds in B. angustifolia leaves and evaluate the antiviral and antioxidant activities of its extract and its major compound. Materials and methods The isolated compound (ombuin) was identified using chemical and spectroscopic tools (UV, 1H, and 13C NMR), and the polar constituents were characterized using gas chromatography mass spectrometry after silylation. Results and conclusion B. angustifolia A. Rich. leaves yielded 7,4′-dimethoxy quercetin 'ombuin'. Both the aqueous alcoholic extract and ombuin showed moderate antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay with IC50values 41.2 and 16.5μg/ml, respectively. Remarkable inhibition against H5N1 virus was found at concentration 80 μg/μl (63 and 68%, respectively). The gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of a complex mixture of 42 compounds, mainly acids, sugars, and their derivatives.
  2,516 333 3
GC–MS analysis of ethanolic extracts of Cyathea nilgirensis, C.gigantea, and C. crinita
Narayanan Janakiraman, Marimuthu alias Antonysamy Johnson
January-April 2016, 15(1):43-47
Aim The present work aimed to study the chemical constituents present in selected Cyathea spp. using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Materials and methods GC–MS analysis was carried out using the Clarus 500 GC with a fused silica column packed with Elite-1 and the components were separated using helium as a carrier gas at a constant flow rate of 1 ml/min. Results The presence of potent chemical constituents in Cyathea spp. was confirmed by GC–MS analysis. The most main identified in Cyathea nilgirensis included methyloctadecyl dichlorosilane (29.19%), 2-methylbutane-1,4-diol, and 3-(1-ethoxyethoxy)- (42.37%) in C. gigantea and 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde (55.45%) in C. crinita. All the predicted compounds showed various biological properties. Conclusion The results of the present study may be useful in metabolomics research, nutraceuticals, and phytopharmaceuticals to evaluate their quality.
  2,232 277 2
Comparative study of membrane-stabilizing activities of kolaviron Dryopteris filix-mas and Ocimum gratissimum extracts
AJ Salemcity, AT Attah, O Oladimeji, AM Olajuyin, G Usifo, T Audu
January-April 2016, 15(1):6-9
Background Diseases associated with inflammation have been one of the major concerns in medicine. Some anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been found to exert side effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is necessary to seek new chemotherapy agents from plant sources with little or no side effects that are capable of preventing inflammation-related disorders. Aim This study aims to investigate the effects of methanol extracts, aqueous and chloroform fractions of Dryopteris filix-mas (DF), Ocimum gratissimum (OG) leaves and kolaviron on membrane stabilization; acetyl salicylic acid was used as a reference drug. Materials and methods Whole blood of rats weighing 150–200 g was assessed using hypotonic solution-induced haemolysis of albino rats, which was determined spectrophotometrically. Results Of the three extracts, kolaviron showed the highest haemolysis inhibition capacity (49.6, 56 and 66.56%) in a concentration-dependent manner (2, 4 and 6 mg/ml, respectively) compared with acetyl salicylic acid, with a haemolysis inhibition capacity of 61.45, 67.22 and 70% in the order of increasing concentrations. This was followed by the aqueous fraction of OG leaves at 6 mg/ml, with percentage haemolysis inhibition of 61.1%, whereas the aqueous fraction of DF was 56.49% at 6 mg/ml. Conclusion The above result suggested that kolaviron, aqueous fractions of OG and DF could serve as excellent alternative anti-inflammatory therapy agents.
  1,765 197 -
Permeability characteristics of various types of areca nut preparations in Sprague–Dawley rat oral mucosa
Dipti Dutta, Venkatesh V Kamath
January-April 2016, 15(1):17-24
Background Oral submucous fibrosis is a potentially malignant oral disorder causatively linked to the habit of areca nut consumption. The various types of preparation of the nut alter the properties and consequently its capability to diffuse through the oral mucosa. Permeability of the nut through the mucosal tissue is an important factor in the production of lesions. Aims The present study attempts to evaluate the permeability of various areca nut preparations standardized against arecoline in the buccal mucosa of Sprague–Dawley rats. Apart from normal mucosal permeability, we also aimed to assess the lesional tissues induced by the application of the areca nut solutions. Materials and methods Healthy in-bred Sprague–Dawley rats aged 3–4 months and weighing 100–200 g were randomly selected and divided into five groups: the control group, the raw areca nut group, the boiled areca nut group, the roasted areca nut group and the pan masala and pure arecoline groups. Permeability was assessed using a Franz diffusion chamber over a period of 24–72 h. Histological assessment to determine depth in the tissue was also done. Results The highest average permeation depths were recorded in the boiled areca nut group (1178.21 μm), followed by the raw areca nut (1157.50 μm), the pan masala (1110.34 μm) and the roasted areca nut (1072.36 μm) groups, as compared with controls (350.79 μm). Overall, there occurred a mild increase in the permeation depths of the solutions in all groups at 72 h compared with 24 h. Statistical analysis revealed that the permeation values had a significant negative correlation with epithelial and keratin thickness. Conclusion There seems to be a time-dependent and solute (areca nut)-dependent pattern in the permeability characteristics. Diffusibility is continuous, persistent and progressive, and tissue reaction in the form of epithelial changes and fibrosis does not appear to be a significant barrier in the process. This study strongly supports the pathological changes seen in the disorders caused by the consumption of areca nut in humans.
  1,702 181 -