Year : 2021  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 249-263

Metabolic disorders associated with coronavirus disease-2019 in conjunction with different chronic diseases and the increased vulnerability to infection

Department of Therapeutic Chemistry, National Research Centre (NRC), Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Hanan F Aly
Department of Therapeutic Chemistry, National Research Centre, ElBehouth St., P.O. 12622, Dokki, Cairo
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_36_21

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The severe acute respiratory-syndrome coronavirus 2 is a viral pathogen that is responsible for the coronavirus disease-2019. Since first being reported, severe acute respiratory-syndrome coronavirus 2 has infected millions of people and eventually caused millions of deaths worldwide, with these numbers rising daily during successive waves. So far, the risk factors associated with poor clinical outcomes (death or admission to an ICU) have been reported to be old age and several comorbidities associated with compromised immune system to help the patient fight the infection. The most common of these comorbidities are obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, and malignancies. These comorbidities, individually or in combination with age, were reported to be linked with poor prognoses. In the present review, vulnerability of patients with different chronic diseases to infection with coronavirus disease-2019 is discussed with different treatment strategies during coexistence of viral infection with any of these diseases. Also, biochemical markers (e.g., angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, cytokine storm, or inflammatory markers) and the underlying mechanisms associated with viral infection together with the different chronic diseases are described.

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