Year : 2021  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 225-231

Antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer properties of Haloxylon salicornicum extracted by microwave-assisted extraction

1 Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Basrah; Department of Pharmacy Technologies, Basra Institute, Southern Technical University, Iraq
2 Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Basrah, Iraq
3 Ministry of Education, General Directorate of Education, Basrah, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
PhD Ali A.A Al-Shawi
Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Basrah, Basrah, Zip Code (61)
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_23_21

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Background The wild plant Haloxylon salicornicum is a desert shrub species that is present in North America and some Middle Eastern countries and is used as a source of vegetation. The reports demonstrated the significance of its bioactive compounds by extracting them with different solvents, such as hexane, methanol, and water fractions using standard extraction methods and evaluating their biological functions as antioxidants, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory. Objective To analyze the chemical compositions of H. salicornicum extracted by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) using the antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activities. Materials and methods In this research, ethanol solvent and simple MAE with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis were used to classify the chemical compositions, and the ethanol extract was evaluated for antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl process, antibacterial activity, anticancer activity using liver cancer cells (HCAM) through apoptosis (AO/EB staining), and flow cytometry analysis for apoptosis and cell cycle arrest ratios. Results and conclusion The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry study revealed ∼33 compounds. H. salicornicum antioxidant activity was IC50=4.120 μg/ml as compared with vitamin C IC50=4.898 μg/ml as a positive regulation. Antibacterial activity of H. salicornicum extract showed a significant inhibition toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. H. salicornicum cytotoxicity against liver cancer cells (HCAM) at 1000 μg/ml showed a significant inhibition ratio (42.35%). The AO/EB staining revealed DNA damage and apoptosis in the morphology of the cells. Early and late apoptosis were established, and the cell cycle was stopped in G1 phase. Our findings indicate that H. salicornicum is a valuable medicinal plant with biological applications. As a result, future research will focus on isolating the responsible natural molecules using MAE and mechanic studies.

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