Year : 2020  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 312-320

Optimization of riboflavin production by Rhodotorula glutinis using statistical design

1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt
2 Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products, National Research Centre, Egypt
3 The Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
MSc Hassan S Hassan
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Khalifa El-Maamon Street, PO Box 11566, Abbasiya Square, Cairo, 11566
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_24_20

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Background and objective Riboflavin is considered a significant nutritional and growth factor in humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. This water-soluble vitamin is an intrinsic component of the basic metabolic processes and is a precursor of the oxidation-reduction coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Riboflavin was synthesized by different microorganisms such as Ashbya gossypii, Eremothecium ashbyii, Candida famata, and Bacillus subtilis. The factors controlling riboflavin production, such as environmental and nutritional factors, were implemented to increase the yield of riboflavin. A statistical experimental design, such as the Plackett–Burman, enables the finding out of the most effective factors that increase the yield of riboflavin. Materials and methods One-factor-at-a-time approach was used to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen and carbon sources for riboflavin production by a local yeast isolate Rhodotorula glutinis. To optimize the riboflavin production by R. glutinis, the combined effects of seven variables (lactose, yeast extract, KH2PO4, MgSO4, time, pH, and rpm) were assessed using the Plackett–Burman design. Results and conclusion A preliminary medium formulation trial suggested that yeast extract and lactose were the appropriate nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. The two-level Plackett–Burman design was implemented to study the nutritional and environmental factors for riboflavin production. Among the seven variables tested, lactose, KH2PO4, and rpm were identified as the most significant factors. The optimal levels of the three variables were determined by response surface methodology based on the Box–Behnken design. The validity of the model developed was verified, and the maximum riboflavin concentration was 88.25 μg/ml, representing 1.27 folds higher in the improved medium.

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