Year : 2019  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 311-319

Anti-urolithiatic activity of Solanum nigrum hydroalcoholic extract in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats

1 Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
2 Department of Medical Physiology, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
3 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Ph.D Mahitab I El-Kassaby
Department of Medical Physiology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza 12311
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_21_19

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Background and objectives Urolithiasis is a growing public health problem. Asymptomatic kidney stones are kept under observation. The aim of this study was to explore the anti-urolithiatic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Solanum nigrum fruit in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and methods Urolithiasis was induced by oral administration of ammonium chloride 1% and ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v) in drinking water for 28 days. Hydroalcoholic extract of Solanum nigrum fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg) and cystone (750 mg/kg) were administered orally from the 15th day as a curative regimen. Results and conclusion Administration of ethylene glycol caused an elevation of serum creatinine, urea, calcium, and malondialdehyde and a reduction of magnesium and glutathione. In addition, renal content of tumor necrosis factor alpha was elevated and adiponectin renal content was reduced in urolithiatic control. Histopathological examination revealed tubular degeneration, dilatation, presence of calcium oxalate crystals in the lumen of renal tubules, and intense interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration in the lithiatic control group. Treatment with both doses of Solanum nigrum reversed all biochemical parameters and histopathological alterations. The results demonstrate that the hydroalcoholic extract of Solanum nigrum has potent anti-urolithiatic activity against calcium oxalate urolithiasis induced by ethylene glycol through tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibition and adiponectin stimulation as well as in maintaining balance between stone promoter (calcium) and inhibitor (magnesium).

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