Year : 2018  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 70-76

Bioactivity and chemical constituents of Gleditsia triacanthos L. leaves

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
3 Department of Pharmacology, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Reda S Mohammed
Pharmacognosy Department, National Research Centre, Giza 12622
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_44_17

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Background and objective Gleditsia triacanthos L. is a deciduous tree belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is used in folk medicine as it possesses important biological activities: antimutagenic, anticancer, cytotoxic, and rheumatoid arthritis-treating properties. The study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of the nonpolar extract of the plant in addition to investigation of its chemical composition. Materials and methods The dried powdered leaves of G. triacanthos were successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarities: petroleum ether (PE), chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous ethanol; moreover, the total ethanol extract was also prepared. The PE extract was fractionated into unsaponifiable matter (USM) and fatty acids, which were methylated to give FAME fractions, which are subjected to GC/MS analysis. Results GC/MS analysis of USM and FAME revealed that 24 compounds represented 76.86% of the total fraction of USM, with squalene (22.68%) as the major compound followed by nonacosane (21.03%) and isophytol (14.70%). Twenty-one compounds of FAME fraction representing 85.87% were identified, with methyl 9,12,15-octadecatrienoate (31.37%) as the major compound followed by methyl hexadecanoate (19.35%) and methyl 9,12-octadecadienoate (13.52%). The unsaturated fatty acid represented 45.89% of the total fraction. GLC of the sterol fraction isolated from the PE revealed the identification of campesterol (51.23%), stigmasterol (42.34%), β sitosterol (4.88%), and cholesterol (1.55%). The PE extract exhibited the highest analgesic and antipyretic activities (81.73 and 91.10% potency, respectively) in comparison with tramadol and paracetamol (100% potency), correspondingly, whereas total ethanol extract exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity followed by ethyl acetate and PE extract (74.60, 66.66 and 62.69% potency, respectively) in comparison with indomethacin (100% potency). Conclusion The results of our study suggest that the PE extract of G. triacanthos leaves extracts can be used as an alternative therapy for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities.

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