Year : 2016  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 17-24

Permeability characteristics of various types of areca nut preparations in Sprague–Dawley rat oral mucosa

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dr. Syamala Reddy Dental College Hospital and Research Centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Venkatesh V Kamath
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dr. Syamala Reddy Dental College Hospital and Research Centre, Bangalore - 560 037, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1687-4315.184027

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Background Oral submucous fibrosis is a potentially malignant oral disorder causatively linked to the habit of areca nut consumption. The various types of preparation of the nut alter the properties and consequently its capability to diffuse through the oral mucosa. Permeability of the nut through the mucosal tissue is an important factor in the production of lesions. Aims The present study attempts to evaluate the permeability of various areca nut preparations standardized against arecoline in the buccal mucosa of Sprague–Dawley rats. Apart from normal mucosal permeability, we also aimed to assess the lesional tissues induced by the application of the areca nut solutions. Materials and methods Healthy in-bred Sprague–Dawley rats aged 3–4 months and weighing 100–200 g were randomly selected and divided into five groups: the control group, the raw areca nut group, the boiled areca nut group, the roasted areca nut group and the pan masala and pure arecoline groups. Permeability was assessed using a Franz diffusion chamber over a period of 24–72 h. Histological assessment to determine depth in the tissue was also done. Results The highest average permeation depths were recorded in the boiled areca nut group (1178.21 μm), followed by the raw areca nut (1157.50 μm), the pan masala (1110.34 μm) and the roasted areca nut (1072.36 μm) groups, as compared with controls (350.79 μm). Overall, there occurred a mild increase in the permeation depths of the solutions in all groups at 72 h compared with 24 h. Statistical analysis revealed that the permeation values had a significant negative correlation with epithelial and keratin thickness. Conclusion There seems to be a time-dependent and solute (areca nut)-dependent pattern in the permeability characteristics. Diffusibility is continuous, persistent and progressive, and tissue reaction in the form of epithelial changes and fibrosis does not appear to be a significant barrier in the process. This study strongly supports the pathological changes seen in the disorders caused by the consumption of areca nut in humans.

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