Year : 2014  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-20

Composition of lipoidal matter and evaluation of hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of Khaya grandifoliola C.DC. growing in Egypt

1 Department of Pharmacognosy, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt
2 Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini, Cairo, Egypt
3 Department ofChemistry of Natural Compounds, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt
4 Department ofPharmacology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Fatma A Hashem
Department of Pharmacognosy, National Research Centre, Dokki 12311, Giza
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1687-4315.135576

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Background and objectives Liver disease is one of the most common health problems. Schistosoma and hepatic viruses are widespread in Egypt, causing severe liver damage and posing a threat to life, which has motivated researchers to discover and evaluate new hepatoprotective agents, particularly from natural sources. The hepatoprotective effect of the leaf extracts of Khaya grandifoliola C.DC. were investigated, after determination of acute toxicity. The anticancer activity and antioxidant potential of the plant were evaluated, as well as the phytochemical composition of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Materials and methods Different extracts of K. grandifoliola C.DC. leaves were prepared and tested for hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats using silymarin as the reference drug. Anticancer activity was tested on HEPG2 (liver carcinoma cell line), HCT116 (colon carcinoma cell line), HELA (cervix carcinoma cell line), HEP2 (larynx carcinoma cell line), and MCF7 (breast carcinoma cell line). Its potency was compared with the reference drug Doxorubicin. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and ascorbic acid as the reference drug. After saponification of the petroleum ether extract, unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by GC/MS. The chloroform extract was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography. Results and conclusion The ethanolic extract of the leaves showed no toxicity up to 5 g/kg. It exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HCT116 (colon carcinoma cell line) and MCF7 (breast carcinoma cell line), compared with doxorubicin as the standard. Also the ethanolic extract has significant free radical scavenger (100% inhibition) activity, compared with ascorbic acid. The extracts showed significant hepatoprotective and curative activity. GC/MS analysis of both unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids from petroleum ether extract allowed identification of 94.29% of the total unsaponifiable matter, (hentriacontane represented the major component, 11.98%) and 80.72% of the fatty acid methyl ester content (hexadecanoic acid methyl ester represented the major component, 31.68%). Vacuum liquid chromatography of chloroform extract led to isolation of two sterol glucosides (β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and β-stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside).

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