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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-April 2018
Volume 17 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-59

Online since Friday, May 4, 2018

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Development and evaluation of Bio-Flexy films using a novel biopolymer from Ananas cosmosus loaded with nanosized tiagabine p. 1
Sugandha Varshney, N.V. Satheesh Madhav
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_19_17  
Background Tiagabine, an anticonvulsant drug, has t1/2: 7–9 h (low); protein binding: 96%; water solubility: 22 mg/l; it also acts as a selective GABA reuptake inhibitor. Side effects include abdominal pain, pharyngitis, suicidal thoughts, and sudden unexpected death. Aim The aim of this work was to formulate nanosized Bio-Flexy films using a novel biopolymer isolated from Ananas cosmosus fruit pulp containing tiagabine as a model drug. The soft palate drug delivery helps bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver and presystemic elimination in the gastrointestinal tract is avoided. The biopolymer isolated from A. cosmosus was used to prepare Bio-Flexy films because of its biodegradability and biocompatibility, and because it is nontoxic and nonirritant, and nonreactive on soft palatal surfaces. Physicochemical characterization of the biopolymer showed its inbuilt property as film forming ability and mucoadhesivity which was confirmed, screened and authenticated. Materials and methods Bio-Flexy films were prepared using the solvent casting technique. The drug to polymer ratio was chosen at five levels for A. cosmosus FPA1–FPA5 with varying ratios of biopolymer from 1 to 10 and 1% of nanosized tiagabine and compared with sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose standard films. Bio-Flexy films were evaluated for thickness, surface pH, weight uniformity, folding endurance, in-vitro release, and stability studies. Results The percentage yield of the A. cosmosus biopolymer was found to be 0.972±0.008%. The thickness of the formulated Bio-Flexy films ranged from 0.041 to 0.091 mm, the folding endurance was 65–95, the surface pH was 7.01±0.02 to 7.01±0.01, and weight uniformity was 0.001±0.02 to 0.032±0.01. Conclusion On the basis of all the above-mentioned evaluation parameters, formulation FPA3 [containing Tiagabine: Ananas cosmosus biopolymer (1:5)] was selected as the best film as results of an in-vitro release study showed prolonged durationof 48 h in prolonged manner. The best film showed R2=0.969 release pattern by Peppas–Korsmeyer, as the Best Fit model, followed by anomalous transport release mechanism, which was confirmed by using BITS Software 1.12. Stability study showed stable Bio-Flexy films with no significant change in physical appearance and stable pH. Prepared formulations of tiagabine-loaded Bio-Flexy films are suitable for soft palatal delivery.
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Extraction of algal lipid as a natural cosmetic component p. 13
Haidy S Basily, Mamdouh M Nassar, Guzine I El Diwani, Sanaa A Abo El-Enin
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_33_17  
Purpose The main aim of the present research is to use different methods for algal oil extraction with different organic solvents to be used as natural components in cosmetic formulations. Materials and methods Several extraction techniques using a cosolvent of n-hexane with isopropanol in a ratio of 3 : 2 (v/v) including conventional extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted bath, and ultrasound-assisted probe extraction on three algae species (Scenedesmus spp., Spirulina platensis, and bloom) were studied against the percentage of algal lipid. The polarity effect of different solvents on the algal lipids, quantitative and qualitative, was studied with the ultrasound-assisted probe extraction method using, hexane, diethyl ether, acetone, ethanol, and chloroform–methanol. The content of essential fatty acids (FAs) in a series of omega-9 (oleic acid), omega-6 (linoleic acid), and omega-3 (linolenic acid and docosapentaenoic acid) was determined using gas chromatographic analysis. Results and conclusion The ultrasound-assisted probe extraction method recorded a higher lipid percentage for the species in the current study. The gravimetric analysis of lipid extractions proved that ethanol was the most producer solvent. The analysis of all FAs extracted using gas chromatography showed that there was no variance in both the classification and the mass of FAs for each algae species under study through either different techniques or with the use of different solvents. In our species of study, the FAs that were present in higher quantities were stearic (18:0), palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1n9), linoleic (18:2n6), and α-linolenic (18:3n3). Very long rank FAs, lignoceric (24:0), and docosapentaenoic (22:5n3) acids were found. The high PUFA content of the investigated algae makes them a good source as natural materials for cosmetic industries.
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Ameliorative effects of aqueous extracts of ginger and garlic on Hibiscus sabdariffa-induced testicular damage in male Wistar rats p. 21
Vincent Olaseinde Olusanya, Nurudeen Olajide Rasaq, Osebhahiemen Ojemekele
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_29_17  
Context Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) is an annual shrub used widely for medicinal and nutritional purposes. Aim To evaluate the ameliorative effects of ginger and garlic on H. sabdariffa-induced testicular damage in male Wistar rats. Settings and design Reproductive toxicity of H. sabdariffa at high dosage and the ameliorative potential of ginger and garlic were determined. Materials and methods Twenty male Wistar rats were grouped into one control group and three experimental groups of five rats each. The animals in group 1 received 1 ml distilled water, the animals in group 2 received 250 mg/kg of H. sabdariffa, and the animals in group 3 received 250 mg/kg of H. sabdariffa and were cotreated with ginger and garlic (250 mg/kg), respectively, for 28 days. The animals in group 4 received 250 mg/kg of H. sabdariffa for 14 days and were left to recover naturally for 14 days. The reproductive functional parameters were subsequently determined. Results and conclusion H. sabdariffa treatment significantly reduced (P≤0.05) the plasma levels of reproductive hormones testosterone, estradiol, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone and compared with the control group. Histopathological examination of the testes also showed marked degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, with necrosis and alteration in testicular structure in H. sabdariffa-treated rats. These alterations induced by H. sabdariffa were significantly (P≤0.05) improved by treatment with ginger and garlic. The results indicated that ginger and garlic protect against testicular damage induced by H. sabdariffa, which may be because of their antioxidant properties and as such may be useful in treating H. sabdariffa-induced testicular damage.
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Isolation, identification, and improving nematotoxicity of rhizobacterial strains against Meloidogyne incognita p. 27
Gaziea M Soliman, Hoda H Ameen, Hassan Abd-El-Khair, Wafaa M.A El-Nagdi, Ghada M El-Sayed
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_36_17  
Background and objectives Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., have been reported to cause severe losses to field, horticultural, and medicinal plants throughout the world. Chemical nematicides are routinely applied for protection of the aforementioned crops. Residues of these toxic nematicides are carried to the final consumed products, which can be quite hazardous to human health on consumption. Biocontrol by using antagonistic organisms to inhibit the pathogens and reduce diseases is an ecofriendly management tool. This study was planned to isolate, identify, and improve or increase the activity of two isolated rhizobacterial strains known to have nematicidal properties − based on preliminary studies − using protoplast fusion technique and assessing the nematicidal potential of the fusants against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita J2. Materials and methods Certain rhizobacterial colonies isolated from the rhizosphere soil of cucumber and banana plants were identified by 16S rDNA to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (accession number LC187271) and Bacillus licheniformis (accession number LC187270). They were manipulated using protoplast fusion technique to improve their nematicidal potentials. The fused protoplasts generated and 10 fusant isolates were assessed against M. incognita J2. Results and conclusion All the tested fusants exhibited increase in their nematicidal activity than their parents against root-knot nematode, M. incognita J2, under laboratory conditions. The percentages of nematode mortality after 72 h of exposure were 85 and 86% by B. licheniformis and P. aeruginosa suspensions, respectively, whereas the percentages of mortality caused by fusants ranged between 91 and 99% as compared with control. The obtained results indicated that protoplast fusion technique is a successful tool to enhance the lethal effect of the isolated rhizobacteria strains against root-knot nematode. The genetically engineered bacteria can play a dual role under field conditions as a biocontrol agent against nematode and subsequently improve plant productivity.
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Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of plant and callus cultures of Plectranthus barbatus andrews p. 32
Mona M Ibrahim, Nermeen M Arafa, Usama I Aly
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_38_17  
Background and objective Plectranthus barbatus is cultivated in many parts of the world for healing and food tradition. This study describes a protocol for the establishment of callus cultures of P. barbatus and examines their content of active compounds as well as their effects as antioxidants compared with in-vitro plants. Materials and methods For obtaining callus cultures, three different explants were tested on MS medium with different growth regulators. Growth index was calculated for the best explant which gave the highest percentage of callus induction. Two different solvents were used for extraction. 2,2′‐Diphenyl-1‐picrylhydrazyl-scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined. Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy analysis was performed to detect the different components. Results and conclusion Maximum callus induction (100%), fresh weight (3.5 g), and growth index (16.5) were obtained from cotyledon explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid+2.5 mg/l benzyl adenine. Aqueous methanol extracts exhibited higher 2,2′‐diphenyl-1‐picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than hexane extracts at all tested concentrations. Likewise, methanolic extract of in-vitro plant and callus cultures gave the highest values of total phenolic (1.39 and 1.19 mg/g dry weight, respectively) and total flavonoid contents (4.87 and 1.14 mg/g dry weight, respectively). Thirty-one bioactive ingredients have been identified in the hexane extract of in-vitro plant and callus cultures of P. barbatus by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy analysis.
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Impact of benzodiazepines administration on selected biochemical parameters of albino Wistar rats (Rattus rattus) p. 40
Joyce N Nzor, Augustin A Uwakwe, Samuel C Onuoha
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_26_17  
Background Considerable information has been reported on the adverse effect of benzodiazepines on the brain, with limited information of their effects on biochemical parameters. Aim This study aimed to investigate the effect of diazepam and bromazepam on selected biochemical parameters of albino Wistar rats. Materials and methods Diazepam and bromazepam at concentrations of 0.0046 mg/100 g body weight, 0.0036 mg/100 g body weight, 0.0026 mg/100 g body weight, and 0.0016 mg/100 g body weight were administered, respectively, to rats on a daily basis. At the end of each week, total serum protein, glucose, urea, and creatinine levels were evaluated. Histopathological examination of the liver was also performed for signs of possible damage. Results Reductions in serum glucose and creatinine levels were observed in the first, second, third, and fourth weeks in rats administered diazepam and bromazepam at various doses. Both drugs showed similar effects and the reductions were only significant (P<0.05) for creatinine, whereas total serum protein was elevated significantly (P<0.05). No effect was observed in urea levels throughout the study period. Histopathological examination of the liver showed pronounced morphological alterations in structure, indicative of hepatic damage. Conclusion Although hematological parameters such as glucose and urea were not affected significantly, the observed hepatotoxicity could be indicative of possible induction of hepatic damage with consequent metabolic aberrations.
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In-vitro radical scavenging activity of Daucus carota L. extracts p. 48
Nermeen M Arafa, Usama I Aly
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_40_17  
Background and objective Antioxidants play a vital role against the harmful effect caused by oxidative stress. The aim of the current study was to assess the antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of Daucus carota L. callus addend with an amino acid precursor, l-phenylalanine, under light and dark conditions. Materials and methods Callus cultures of petiole, stem, and root explants of D. carota L. in-vitro seedlings were implanted on calli maintenance medium fortified with 500 and 1000 mg/l l-phenylalanine as an amino acid precursor and then were incubated under light and dark conditions. The various prepared concentrations of D. carota L. callus crude extracts of petiole, stem, and root explants by maceration with 85% methanol were screened for possible antioxidant activity using 2, 2′-diphenyl 1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging test. Results and conclusion The present study re-cultured the induced calli from petiole, stem, and root explants of D. carota L. on the best selected medium [MS-medium supplemented with 1 mg/l benzylaminopurine (BAP)+2 mg/l naphthaleneaceticacid (NAA)] for callus cultures added with l-phenylalanine. The different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 mg/ml) of the prepared callus cultures extracts of stem, root, and petiole explants of D. carota L. have been tested for antioxidant effects. The results revealed that, under dark condition, 12 mg of petiole extract concentration exhibited the least concentration of methanol crude extract recording the greatest antioxidant activity (124.71%) on medium containing 1000 mg/l phenylalanine in comparison with other callus extracts. The results of this investigation revealed that calli of D. carota L. petiole explant should be incubated under dark condition, and their methanol crude extract ought to be used at a concentration of 12 mg. Hence, D. carota L. extract should be considered as a new source of natural antioxidant.
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Cytotoxic activity of ketorolac-loaded chitosan nanoparticles in SCC-29 cell lines p. 53
Kola Venu, Sumanta Mondal, Prasenjit Mondal
DOI:10.4103/epj.epj_1_18  
Context Ketorolac (KT) is a NSAID, with multiple pharmacological activities having been reported. Aim To formulate chitosan nanoparticles of KT for assessing their potential in decreasing the growth of colon cancer cells. Materials and methods Chitosan nanoparticles of KT such as F1 and F2 have shown anticancer activity against SCC-29 cell lines. Furthermore, nanoparticles have been subjected to stability test at various pH, drug-release study, and in-vivo pharmacokinetics in Wistar rats. Results The nanoparticles were in the size range between 164 and 210 nm. The oral absorption of nanoparticles was relatively higher than the KT alone. Conclusion The prepared nanoparticle formulations showed better activity than KT alone.
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