ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 87-96

Anticancer activity of nanoencapsulated ginger in whey proteins against human tumor cell lines


1 Pharmacognosy Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre (NRC), EL Buhouth St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
2 Department of Dairy Science and Technology, Menoufia University, Shibin Elkom, Cairo, Egypt
3 Dairy Department, Food Industries and Nutrition Research Division, National Research Centre El-Buhouth St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Marwa M Mounier
Pharmacognosy Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre (NRC), EL Buhouth St, Dokki, Cairo
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/epj.epj_30_19

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Background and objective Zingiber officinaleis, known as ginger, has been used in Arabic traditional medicine for its immense pharmacological effects. Encapsulation of the bioactive compounds is a powerful approach to improve their bioactivities, decrease their toxicities, and expand their physical steadiness. In this investigation, the cytotoxic activity of free and nanoencapsulated ginger against three human tumor cell lines was assessed with respect to IC50 and selectivity index. Additionally, the prompted apoptotic changes by free and nanoencapsulated ginger were evaluated. Materials and methods Ethanol extract was prepared from powdered ginger. Total phenol content was measured using the Folin–Ciocalteau method, where ginger extract (GE) (30 µl) was mixed with 2.37 ml deionized water, and then 150 µl Folin–Ciocalteau’s phenol reagent and 450 µl sodium bicarbonate (20% w/v) were added to the mixture. Absorbance was measured at 760 nm. Preparations of GE-loaded in Whey protein isolate (WPI) were done through charged alkaline WPI solution by absolute ethanol. Results GE demonstrated the most powerful anticancer activity on breast cancer cells with high selectivity index (SI) and specificity. The particle size of WPI nanoparticles was 91.98 nm, which decreased by increasing the loading percentage of the ginger-extract reaching 73.47 nm with maximum loading. Conversely, the encapsulation efficiency (EE) of the encapsulated ginger-extract in WPI nanoparticles was 79.78%, which was increased by increasing the loading percentage of the ginger extract. Moreover, nanoparticle yield was higher than 78.45% for all samples. Encapsulation of GE enhanced the tumor suppression effect of the free GE. This may be attributed to the slow release and high solubility of the nanoencapsulated ginger. Conclusion Nanoencapsulation using WPI upgraded altogether the bioavailability of ginger and its anticancer action in comparison with free GE.


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